Deep injection wells avoid the environmental impact of land or offshore disposal
Desalination Concentrate — Industrial Waste Water — Oilfield Brines
Water containing residual hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides, inorganics, suspended solids, and extraction chemicals.
Get Ahead of the Trends in Produced Water Management
Regulatory tightening of produced and waste water disposal and management continues to challenge the oil producing industry. Liquid waste and produced water disposal methods are being refined to meet new regulations, including:
- Zero emissions
- Zero discharge to the surface or seas
- Converting waste to value
- Pro-actively influencing partners, regulators, and environmental laws
- Adopting incremental and progressive separation
Produced Water is a by-product of the production of crude oil from the wellhead.
It is also called Formation Water.
Why Water Injection Is Preferred
Produced water is a fact of life in the oilfield. On average at least three barrels of water are produced with every barrel of oil. A cost effective way to deal with this water is paramount for the cost efficient production of the hydrocarbon.
- Enhanced oil recovery via formation pressure and displacement of crude oil in the reservoir.
- Injection for pressure maintenance in the producing formation
- Easily dispose of water from the raw crude and water emulsion separation process.
- Cost-effective disposal of waste water
The treatment process is a closed loop that minimizes the chance for spills and the environmental contamination that follows. In a single, onsite process, you can improve drilling efficiency, recycle drilling liquids, and increase production.
- Raw production from the wellhead is piped to a Free Water Knockout Vessel then to a gun barrel where free oil is separated from the water.
- Free water and solids are separated and injected and the clean oil is collected and sold
Non-hazardous Waste Water Treatment
- Metal-bearing waste waters
- Oily waste waters
- Organic waste waters
- Evaporative system to change a non-hazardous produced water into a gas or vapor where it can be condensed leaving behind any contaminates.
- Filtration and simple chemical flocculation
- Membrane filtration to remove certain undesirable ions
- Ion exchange
Hazardous Waste Water Treatment
We also perform:
- Elementary neutralization of corrosive-oily waste
- Transportation and disposal of
- Reactive, and
- Flowback water recycling of “frac” water generated during hydraulic fracturing and extraction processes.
Recycle Waste Water
Water is a valuable resource that should be managed for future use and availability. While it is not possible to rid waste water of contaminants completely, the waste resulting from oil-drilling operations can be reused in other ways.
- Use organic waste streams to generate electricity in anaerobic digester facilities.
- Use high BTU waste as fuel alternatives.
- Use treated water for:
- Steam generation
- Agricultural canals
- Re-injection into the downhole
Why Advantek Waste Management Services?
“Our predecessor, Advantek (founded 1999), and our founders made pioneering advancements in waste disposal. We are a globally recognized leader in oilfield waste management.”
- We have decades of experience in Exploration and Production waste injection projects from design to long term operational assurance.
- Leadership and experience world-wide with the largest oilfield waste management projects, with specialized capabilities for the harshest environments.
Water Injection Library
Technical papers related to the water injection, including produced water reinjection, water flood, and injection of flowback water.
"Flow Rate-Dependent Skin in Water Disposal Injection Well", Mohamed IM, Block GI, Abou-Sayed OA, Elkatatny SM, Abou-Sayed AS. Flow Rate-Dependent Skin in Water Disposal Injection Well. ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2016;138(5):052906-052906-8. doi:10.1115/1.4033400.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Reinjection is one of the most important methods to dispose fluid associated with oil and natural gas production. Disposed fluids include produced water, hydraulic fracture flow back fluids, and drilling mud fluids. Several formation damage mechanisms are associated with the injection including damage due to filter cake formed at the formation face, bacteria activity, fluid incompatibility, free gas content, and clay activation. Fractured injection is typically preferred over matrix injection because a hydraulic fracture will enhance the well injectivity and extend the well life. In a given formation, the fracture dimensions change with different injection flow rates due to the change in injection pressures. Also, for a given flow rate, the skin factor varies with time due to the fracture propagation. In this study, well test and injection history data of a class II disposal well in south Texas were used to develop an equation that correlates the skin factor to the injection flow rate and injection time. The results show that the skin factor decreases with time logarithmically as the fracture propagates. At higher injection flow rates, the skin factor achieved is lower due to the larger fracture dimensions that are developed at higher injection flow rates. The equations developed in this study can be applied for any water injector after calibrating the required coefficients using injection step rate test (SRT) data.
"Challenging Wastewater Treatment", asiliu, C. C., Pierce, D., & Bertrand, K. (2012, January 1). Challenging Wastewater Treatment. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/157615-MSClick here to view Article
Abstract: From the point-of-view of a solutions provider the wastewater treatment should be straight forward: once given the composition of the feed and the required composition of the effluent, today's technology allows formulating a set of solutions which best meets the operator's and the regulatory criteria. The problem with wastewater in the unconventional gas exploration and production operations is that there are large volumes to be handled and treated. To add complexity, composition varies for the same well in time and varies even more from area to area of development. Also, the requirements for the cleaned fluid vary from operator to operator and by region. Moreover, management of the water based fluids is under the pressure and scrutiny of various regulating agencies: public, privately, or governmentally run. All these constraints make the vetting of treatment methods and technologies to be a very dynamic and intensive process. Our findings during the process of formulating a set of solutions shows that a deep understanding of the problems, combined with close collaboration with the operators and regulators along with solid basic engineering practices are the key to success. Our experience would benefit the new developments in other unconventional exploration and production area in Asia by showing the steps that were undertaken to insure solutions are up to the highest standards. The process of finding and testing various waste water treatment technologies to formulate a flexible comprehensive set of methods will be described. Laboratory results of various samples of water will be presented as well as the challenges that were overcome for obtaining consistent, reliable analytical data. The oilfield tough requirement presented to new technologies translates as: rugged, flexible, mobile, and low cost.
"Application of Genetic Algorithms to the Optimization of Pressure Transient Analysis of Water Injectors using Type Curves", Zakaria, A. S. E. D., Hafez, M., Ochi, J., Zaki, K. S., Lololi, M., & Abou-Sayed, A. S. (2011, January 1). Application of Genetic Algorithms to the Optimization of Pressure Transient Analysis of Water Injectors using Type Curves. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/143386-MSClick here to view Article
Abstract: Injection pressure fall-off (PFO) test analysis has proven to be a reliable vehicle for understanding and evaluating well performance. Recently the methodology has been extended to the understanding of injectors. This paper presents an optimization model for analysis and interpretation of PFO tests for fractured water injectors. An elliptical composite flow model mathematically represents the fractured injector well. The optimization scheme couples the mathematical model of the well with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to reach the final solution. The pressure transients representing the behavior of an injector a closing fracture and the discontinuity in fluid mobility are best developed in elliptical coordinates. The methodology derives the dimension of the induced fractures, formation permeability, fracture conductivity and fracture face skin. The current paper illustrates the solution methodology by showing the attained match for a West Africa offshore field case. The field case provides reasonable agreement for the fracture dimensions and characteristics as verified by other techniques. Genetic Algorithms are one of the most common artificial intelligence techniques for optimization. The reported solution is obtained by applying a GA with a non-linear least square error function as an objective function. A special penalty function, mutation, crossover probabilities, and stopping criterion are used to obtain the global minimum of the objective function. The test data analysis is done through type curve matching of the pressure and its derivative by minimizing the objective function to help determine the parameters that provide the best match between the field data and the presented novel fractured injector type curves.
"Water Recycling helps with Sustainability", Pierce, D., Bertrand, K., & CretiuVasiliu, C. (2010, January 1). Water Recycling helps with Sustainability. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/134137-MSClick here to view Article
Abstract: The oil business uses a large quantity of water during the drilling and completion of an unconventional gas well. In many of the shale plays each well needs in excess of 4 million gallons of water (100,000 bbl) during the drilling and completions operations. Water is a precious resource and many areas are faced with water shortages. Water shortages extend to almost all the traditional oil and gas producing areas in the United States including Colorado, California, Wyoming, Texas and Oklahoma. Also, the arid areas of Australia, The Middle East, and Africa see even more severe shortages of fresh water than in the United States. Moreover, in areas where water is not in short supply such as Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Eastern United States, discharge of high salt content water is problematic. In order to assure itself of adequate water for drilling and completion operations, the oil business needs to change the ways it has traditionally transacted its business. As stated above many drilling areas are faced with water shortages, whereas many other producing areas are faced with high disposal costs for frac flow back water and produced water. In many traditional production areas disposal of water is simple and usually inexpensive since there are numerous injection wells in these traditional production areas. However, in some of the new Shale plays the access to injection wells for disposal of produced water and frac flow back water is very limited. Part of the solution is to recycle the frac flow back water and the produced water for use as drilling fluid or for Frac Fluid. How clean does this water need to be for use as a drilling fluid or a frac fluid? What techniques are used to clean this water? How costly are the various techniques? These questions and others will be addressed in this paper.
"Flow Rate Dependent Skin in Water Disposal Injection Well: Case Study", Mohamed, I. M., Block, G. I., Abou-Sayed, O. A., Elkatatny, S. M., & Abou-Sayed, A. S. (2014, August 18). Flow Rate Dependent Skin in Water Disposal Injection Well: Case Study. American Rock Mechanics Association.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Re-Injection is one of the most important methods to dispose fluid associated with oil and natural gas production. Disposed fluids include produced water, hydraulic fracture flow back fluids, and drilling mud fluids. Several formation damage mechanisms are associated with the injection including damage due to filter cake formed at the formation face, bacteria activity, fluid incompatibility, free gas content, and clay activation. Fractured injection is typically preferred over matrix injection because a hydraulic fracture will enhance the well injectivity and extend the well life. In a given formation, the fracture dimensions change with different injection flow rates due to the change in injection pressures. Also, for a given flow rate, the skin factor varies with time due to the fracture propagation. In this study, well test and injection history data of a Class II disposal well in south Texas were used to develop an equation that correlates the skin factor to the injection flow rate and injection time. The results show that with time, the skin factor decreases until such a point at which the fracture dimensions are sufficient without further propagation to handle the injected water volume (stationary fracture). A constant skin factor is noted after this point. At higher injection flow rates, the constant skin factor achieved is lower because of the larger fracture dimensions developed at higher injection flow rates.
"Waterflooding Conformance and Water Quality: Flow Partitioning During Produced Water Injection", Abou-Sayed, A. S., Sarfare, M. D., & Zaki, K. S. (2006, January 1). Waterflooding Conformance and Water Quality: Flow Partitioning During Produced Water Injection. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/98216-MSClick here to view Article
Abstract: Flow distribution plays an important role in Produced Water Re-Injection operations. This is especially true when the injection horizon contains isolated hydraulic units that are individually capable of accepting part of or the entire injection rate. The hydraulic units maybe separated by an impermeable barrier, shale, and/or have variations in the minimum horizontal stress. Under normal operating conditions fractures initiated in one or more of these units would not intersect or combine. The fracture growth becomes a coupled problem where growth in one hydraulic units is dependent on growth or retardation in other units. Retardation might be caused by solid and oil deposition in the fracture that would plug its tip and damage its faces. Plugging would decrease available fracture length for leakoff below the actual total length of the fracture. Such scenarios become difficult to control if not initially planned or designed for and can lead to undesirable effects such as inefficient sweep or uncontrolled fracture growth. In the following discussion the design and monitoring criteria for such problems will be addressed. We will review some available tools and prominent parameters and/or variables that affect this behavior both from a time dependent and independent point of view. Particular attention will be placed on the damage mechanisms, total suspended solids (TSS) and oil in water (OIW), and their effects on altering the injection rate distribution as a progressive time dependent phenomena. Finally, two scenarios will be presented, as practical examples of field cases where flow partitioning issues presented a particular concern as a result of inherent reservoir properties.
"An Advanced, Integrated Simulator for Management of Produced Water Re-Injection in Multilayer Vertical or Horizontal Wells", Elkatatny, S. M., Farid, A., Mohamed, I., Abou-Sayed, O. A., & Block, G. I. (2014, August 18). An Advanced, Integrated Simulator for Management of Produced Water Re-Injection in Multilayer Vertical or Horizontal Wells. American Rock Mechanics AssociationClick here to view Article
Abstract: Produced water re-injection (PWRI) is often the safest and most economical method for disposal of produced water in the oil industry. Two key issues that affect the management of PWRI are the formation damage and the constrained pumping pressure at the wellhead. A simulator was developed to handle the design of single-zone or multi-zone water injection in multilayered reservoirs. The simulator can accommodate both vertical and horizontal wells operated under matrix and/or fractured regimes. It is also able to account for the impact of formation damage and user-defined wellhead pressure constraints. Results obtained from the simulator showed good agreement with known injection behaviors. For vertical wells, injection conformance depends on KH (permeability-thickness) and the minimum horizontal stress; in the case of multi-fractured horizontal wells, the outermost fractures (those near the tip and the heel of the horizontal well) are longer than the fractures in the middle. Lastly, by constraining the maximum allowable surface pressure, frictional pressure drops in both the wellbore and fracture cause the injection rate to decline, which in turn affects both the fracture geometry and the maximum disposal volumes.
"Feasibility of Downhole Oil/Water Separation and Reinjection in the GOM.", Suarez, S., & Abou-Sayed, A. (1999, January 1). Feasibility of Downhole Oil/Water Separation and Reinjection in the GOM. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/57285-MSClick here to view Article
This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Asia PacificImproved Oil Recovery Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 25-26 October1999.
"Analysis Of The Injection Test For A Waterflooding Experiment And Interpretation Of The Accompanying Processes", Morales, R. H., Abou-Sayed, A. S., Jones, A. H., Al Saffar, A., & Schmidt, R. A. (1984, January 1). Analysis Of The Injection Test For A Waterflooding Experiment And Interpretation Of The Accompanying Processes. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/13130-MSClick here to view Article
Abstract: A 30 day waterflooding test in which seawater was injected into two production zones (A and B) of an oil producing limestone reservoir is analyzed. During testing the flow rates were varied to maintain constant tubing head pressure. Injection rates were recorded for three levels of constant tubing head pressures (THP): initial (THP = 990 psig), intermediate (THP = 1240 psig), and final (THP = 1490 psig). The purpose of the analysis was to detect the possible occurrence of a fracture. A radial fluid possible occurrence of a fracture. A radial fluid flow technique was utilized to analyze the pressure-injection behavior. The analyses disclosed a pressure-injection behavior. The analyses disclosed a change in the formation's ability to transmit fluids. Rock mechanics analyses were utilized to quantify the changes in in situ stress due to water flooding effects (i.e. pore pressure buildup and temperature decrease). The later analysis disclosed that the bottomhole fluid pressures exceeded the modified minimum in situ stresses at the intermediate and final pressure levels. Both, the increase in fluid transmissibility and the bottomhole fluid pressure rise above the modified minimum in situ stress indicated the occurrence of fracture. A possible fracture geometry was obtained by means of 2-D and 3-D hydraulic fracturing simulators.
"Formation Damage Evaluation of Produced Water ReInjection Using an Advanced Software in Vertical and Horizontal Wells", Elkatatny SM, Farid A, Mohamed I, Abou-Sayed OA and Block GI. 2017. Formation Damage Evaluation of Produced Water ReInjection Using an Advanced Software in Vertical and Horizontal Wells. Medwin Publishers, Petroleum and Petroleum Engineering Journal, Volume 1, Issue 1.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Produced water re-injection (PWRI) is often the safest and most economical method for disposal of produced water in the oil industry. Two key issues that affect the management of PWRI are the formation damage and the constrained pumping pressure at the wellhead. A simulator was developed to handle the design of single-zone or multi-zone water injection in multi-layered reservoirs. The simulator can accommodate both vertical and horizontal wells operated under matrix and/or fractured regimes. It is also able to account for the impact of formation damage and user-defined wellhead pressure constraints. Results obtained from the simulator showed good agreement with known injection behaviors. For vertical wells, injection conformance depends on KH (permeability-thickness) and the minimum horizontal stress; in the case of multi-fractured horizontal wells, the outermost fractures (those near the tip and the heel of the horizontal well) are longer than the fractures in the middle. Lastly, by constraining the maximum allowable surface pressure, frictional pressure drops in both the wellbore and fracture cause the injection rate to decline, which in turn affects both the fracture geometry and the maximum disposal volumes.
"Produced Water Management (PWM) Strategy - Water Injection Best Practices - Design, Performance and Monitoring" SPE- 108238, SPE Production & Operations, Volume 22, Number 1, February 2007, pp. 59-68, 2007. Society of Petroleum Engineers.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Key factors in framing a produced water management (PWM) strategy include a company's internal and external environments, technology and business drivers. Emerging trends for establishing an environment-friendly PWM position can comprise these declared policies:
- Move toward zero emission
- No discharge to surface or seas
- Waste-to-Value conversion
- Incremental and progressive separation
- Pro-activity to influence partners, regulators and environmental laws
This paper covers the technical approaches for addressing production, separation, and disposal/injection segments of water injection and reservoir water flooding and the basis for selecting strategy components and PWM actions. Best practices result from both comprehensive assessments of current PWM tools and insights from a decade-long, joint industry project (JIP) on produced water re-injection (PWRI).
"Fracture Propagation, Filter-Cake Buildup and Formation Plugging During PWRI," SPE 98351, paper presented at the 2006 SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, LA, 15-17 February 2006.Click here to view Article
Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of external filter cake formation during dynamic (cross-flow) filtration with main focus on petroleum engineering applications. Numerous researches have been done during the last several decades to investigate the cake buildup mechanisms, structure and effects of various parameters on cake properties, flux decline and stabilisation. However, a consistent hypothesis to explain the main cake buildup mechanisms and structure has not been devised yet due to numerous laboratory and field observations that can be attributed to different physics mechanisms.
Authors: Zaki, K., Sarfare, M.D., Abou-Sayed, A.S.
Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers
"Quantifying Productivity Loss and Permeability Alteration Due to Formation Compaction During Frac-Pack Treatment," SPE 98214, paper presented at the 2006 SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, LA, 15-17 February 2006.Click here to view Article
Abstract: The objective in Hydraulic Fracturing is to increase well productivity and enhance or accelerate hydrocarbon recovery. Yet in soft formations, where hydraulic fracturing provides the secondary benefit of sand control, FracPack operations may result in adverse effects. These effects are more prominent in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) deepwater fields, where sands are over-pressured and highly compactive. Porosity loss around the fractured well normally occurs during FracPacks. This paper addresses this issue and quantifies the permeability loss in FracPack treatments.
Authors: Sarfare, M., Zaki, K., Abou-Sayed, A.S.
Copyright2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers
"A 3-D Plastic Fracture Simulation to assess Fracture Volumes in Compacting Reservoir," ARMA/NARMS 04-648 presented at Gulf Rocks 2004, the 6th NARMS, held in Houston, Texas, 5-9 June, 2004.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Traditionally, hydraulic fracturing simulations have been based on elastic theories. Although this is adequate for hard rocks the fracture geometry predictions fall short when applied to fracturing soft rocks that are at incipient plasticity, or that are prone to compaction. These phenomena are usually encountered during fracturing for sand control, FracPacks and disposal of slurries and drilling cuttings in soft layers. The capacity of the created fracture to store solids, the conditions of the rock strength near the fracture faces and the near well/fracture rock permeability are all highly impacted by the rock compaction during fracture propagation.
Authors: Zaki, K.; Meng, F.; Wang, G. and Abou-Sayed, A.S.
"Fracture Propagation and Formation Disturbance during Injection and Frac-Pack Operations in Soft Compacting Rocks" SPE 90656, to be presented at the SPE ATCE to be held in Houston, Texas, 26-29 September 2004.Click here to view Article
Abstract: The widespread use of FracPack technology in deepwater reservoirs has been a growing practice. Its purpose is sand control and well stimulation. To-date, field applications and fracture treatments have been designed using traditional hydraulic fracturing simulators that apply LEFM theories. While this is adequate for hard rocks (e.g., tight gas formations), the fracture geometry predictions fall short when applied to fracturing soft rocks. Soft rocks are normally at incipient plasticity and, hence, are prone to compaction.
Authors: Abou-Sayed, A.S., Zaki, K., Wang, G., Meng, F., and Sarfare, M., Advantek International Corp.
Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers