Deep injection wells avoid the environmental impact of land or offshore disposal
Desalination Concentrate — Industrial Waste Water — Oilfield Brines
Water containing residual hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides, inorganics, suspended solids, and extraction chemicals.
Get Ahead of the Trends in Produced Water Management
Regulatory tightening of produced and waste water disposal and management continues to challenge the oil producing industry. Liquid waste and produced water disposal methods are being refined to meet new regulations, including:
- Zero emissions
- Zero discharge to the surface or seas
- Converting waste to value
- Pro-actively influencing partners, regulators, and environmental laws
- Adopting incremental and progressive separation
Produced Water is a by-product of the production of crude oil from the wellhead.
It is also called Formation Water.
Why Water Injection Is Preferred
Produced water is a fact of life in the oilfield. On average at least three barrels of water are produced with every barrel of oil. A cost effective way to deal with this water is paramount for the cost efficient production of the hydrocarbon.
- Enhanced oil recovery via formation pressure and displacement of crude oil in the reservoir.
- Injection for pressure maintenance in the producing formation
- Easily dispose of water from the raw crude and water emulsion separation process.
- Cost-effective disposal of waste water
The treatment process is a closed loop that minimizes the chance for spills and the environmental contamination that follows. In a single, onsite process, you can improve drilling efficiency, recycle drilling liquids, and increase production.
- Raw production from the wellhead is piped to a Free Water Knockout Vessel then to a gun barrel where free oil is separated from the water.
- Free water and solids are separated and injected and the clean oil is collected and sold
Non-hazardous Waste Water Treatment
- Metal-bearing waste waters
- Oily waste waters
- Organic waste waters
- Evaporative system to change a non-hazardous produced water into a gas or vapor where it can be condensed leaving behind any contaminates.
- Filtration and simple chemical flocculation
- Membrane filtration to remove certain undesirable ions
- Ion exchange
Hazardous Waste Water Treatment
We also perform:
- Elementary neutralization of corrosive-oily waste
- Transportation and disposal of
- Reactive, and
- Flowback water recycling of “frac” water generated during hydraulic fracturing and extraction processes.
Recycle Waste Water
Water is a valuable resource that should be managed for future use and availability. While it is not possible to rid waste water of contaminants completely, the waste resulting from oil-drilling operations can be reused in other ways.
- Use organic waste streams to generate electricity in anaerobic digester facilities.
- Use high BTU waste as fuel alternatives.
- Use treated water for:
- Steam generation
- Agricultural canals
- Re-injection into the downhole
Why Advantek Waste Management Services?
“Our predecessor, Advantek (founded 1999), and our founders made pioneering advancements in waste disposal. We are a globally recognized leader in oilfield waste management.”
- We have decades of experience in Exploration and Production waste injection projects from design to long term operational assurance.
- Leadership and experience world-wide with the largest oilfield waste management projects, with specialized capabilities for the harshest environments.
Water Injection Library
Technical papers related to the water injection, including produced water reinjection, water flood, and injection of flowback water.
"Produced Water Management (PWM) Strategy - Water Injection Best Practices - Design, Performance and Monitoring" SPE- 108238, SPE Production & Operations, Volume 22, Number 1, February 2007, pp. 59-68, 2007. Society of Petroleum Engineers.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Key factors in framing a produced water management (PWM) strategy include a company's internal and external environments, technology and business drivers. Emerging trends for establishing an environment-friendly PWM position can comprise these declared policies:
- Move toward zero emission
- No discharge to surface or seas
- Waste-to-Value conversion
- Incremental and progressive separation
- Pro-activity to influence partners, regulators and environmental laws
This paper covers the technical approaches for addressing production, separation, and disposal/injection segments of water injection and reservoir water flooding and the basis for selecting strategy components and PWM actions. Best practices result from both comprehensive assessments of current PWM tools and insights from a decade-long, joint industry project (JIP) on produced water re-injection (PWRI).
"Waterflooding Conformance and Water Quality: Flow Partitioning During Produced-Water Injection," SPE 98216, paper presented at the 2006 SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, LA, 15-17 February 2006.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Flow distribution plays an important role in Produced Water Re-Injection operations. This is especially true when the injection horizon contains isolated hydraulic units that are individually capable of accepting part of, or the entire injection rate. The hydraulic units may be separated by an impermeable barrier, shale, and/or have variations in the minimum horizontal stress. Under normal operating conditions fractures initiated in one or more of these units would not intersect or combine. The fracture growth becomes a coupled problem where growth in one hydraulic units is dependent on growth or retardation in other units. Retardation might be caused by solid and oil deposition in the fracture that would plug its tip and damage its faces. Plugging would decrease available fracture length for leak off below the actual total length of the fracture. Such scenarios become difficult to control if not initially planned or designed for and can lead to undesirable effects such as inefficient sweep or uncontrolled fracture growth.
Authors: Abou-Sayed, A.S., Sarfare, M.D., Zaki, K.
Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers
"Fracture Propagation, Filter-Cake Buildup and Formation Plugging During PWRI," SPE 98351, paper presented at the 2006 SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, LA, 15-17 February 2006.Click here to view Article
Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of external filter cake formation during dynamic (cross-flow) filtration with main focus on petroleum engineering applications. Numerous researches have been done during the last several decades to investigate the cake buildup mechanisms, structure and effects of various parameters on cake properties, flux decline and stabilisation. However, a consistent hypothesis to explain the main cake buildup mechanisms and structure has not been devised yet due to numerous laboratory and field observations that can be attributed to different physics mechanisms.
Authors: Zaki, K., Sarfare, M.D., Abou-Sayed, A.S.
Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers
"Quantifying Productivity Loss and Permeability Alteration Due to Formation Compaction During Frac-Pack Treatment," SPE 98214, paper presented at the 2006 SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, LA, 15-17 February 2006.Click here to view Article
Abstract: The objective in Hydraulic Fracturing is to increase well productivity and enhance or accelerate hydrocarbon recovery. Yet in soft formations, where hydraulic fracturing provides the secondary benefit of sand control, FracPack operations may result in adverse effects. These effects are more prominent in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) deepwater fields, where sands are over-pressured and highly compactive. Porosity loss around the fractured well normally occurs during FracPacks. This paper addresses this issue and quantifies the permeability loss in FracPack treatments.
Authors: Sarfare, M., Zaki, K., Abou-Sayed, A.S.
Copyright2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers
"A 3-D Plastic Fracture Simulation to assess Fracture Volumes in Compacting Reservoir," ARMA/NARMS 04-648 presented at Gulf Rocks 2004, the 6th NARMS, held in Houston, Texas, 5-9 June, 2004.Click here to view Article
Abstract: Traditionally, hydraulic fracturing simulations have been based on elastic theories. Although this is adequate for hard rocks the fracture geometry predictions fall short when applied to fracturing soft rocks that are at incipient plasticity, or that are prone to compaction. These phenomena are usually encountered during fracturing for sand control, FracPacks and disposal of slurries and drilling cuttings in soft layers. The capacity of the created fracture to store solids, the conditions of the rock strength near the fracture faces and the near well/fracture rock permeability are all highly impacted by the rock compaction during fracture propagation.
Authors: Zaki, K.; Meng, F.; Wang, G. and Abou-Sayed, A.S.
"Fracture Propagation and Formation Disturbance during Injection and Frac-Pack Operations in Soft Compacting Rocks" SPE 90656, to be presented at the SPE ATCE to be held in Houston, Texas, 26-29 September 2004.Click here to view Article
Abstract: The widespread use of FracPack technology in deepwater reservoirs has been a growing practice. Its purpose is sand control and well stimulation. To-date, field applications and fracture treatments have been designed using traditional hydraulic fracturing simulators that apply LEFM theories. While this is adequate for hard rocks (e.g., tight gas formations), the fracture geometry predictions fall short when applied to fracturing soft rocks. Soft rocks are normally at incipient plasticity and, hence, are prone to compaction.
Authors: Abou-Sayed, A.S., Zaki, K., Wang, G., Meng, F., and Sarfare, M., Advantek International Corp.
Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers